Nudge
Nudge

Nudge

A choice architect has the responsibility for organizing the context in which people make decisions. (Location 81)

A nudge, as we will use the term, is any aspect of the choice architecture that alters people’s behavior in a predictable way without forbidding any options or significantly changing their economic incentives. (Location 128)

Putting the fruit at eye level counts as a nudge. Banning junk food does not. (Location 130)

Humans predictably err. Take, for example, the ‘planning fallacy’ –the systematic tendency toward unrealistic optimism about the time it takes to complete projects. It will come as no surprise to anyone who has ever hired a contractor to learn that everything takes longer than you think, even if you know about the planning fallacy. (Location 159)

people have a strong tendency to go along with the status quo or default option. When you get a new cell phone, for example, you have a series of choices to make. The fancier the phone, the more of these choices you face, from the background to the ring sound to the number of times the phone rings before the caller is sent to voice mail. The manufacturer has picked one option as the default for each of these choices. Research shows that whatever the default choices are, many people stick with them, even when the stakes are much higher than choosing the noise your phone makes when it rings. (Location 164)

people save more if they get paid biweekly because twice a year they get three pay checks in one month. (Location 203)

If incentives and nudges replace requirements and bans, government will be both smaller and more modest. (Location 268)

Beethoven wrote his incredible ninth symphony while he was deaf, but we would not be at all surprised if we learned that he often misplaced his house keys. How can people be simultaneously so smart and so dumb? (Location 306)

In many domains, the evidence shows that, within reason, the more you ask for, the more you tend to get. (Location 398)

Whether people buy insurance for natural disasters is greatly affected by recent experience. (Location 415)

Unfortunately, people do not have accurate perceptions of what random sequences look like. When they see the outcomes of random processes, they often detect patterns that they think have great meaning but in fact are just due to chance. (Location 446)

MBA students are not the only ones overconfident about their abilities. (Location 511)

Ninety percent of all drivers think they are above average behind the wheel, (Location 511)

And nearly everyone (including some who are rarely seen smiling) thinks he has an above-average sense of humor. (Location 512)

About 94 percent of professors at a large university were found to believe that they are better than the average professor, and there is every reason to think that such overconfidence applies to professors in general. 9 (Yes, we admit to this particular failing.) (Location 513)

People are unrealistically optimistic even when the stakes are high. About 50 percent of marriages end in divorce, and this is a statistic most people have heard. But around the time of the ceremony, almost all couples believe that there is approximately a zero percent chance that their marriage will end in divorce – even those who have already been divorced! (Location 516)

if people are reminded of a bad event, they may not continue to be so optimistic. (Location 533)

losing something makes you twice as miserable as gaining the same thing makes you happy. (Location 535)

When they have to give something up, they are hurt more than they are pleased if they acquire the very same thing. (Location 543)

Self-control problems can be illuminated by thinking about an individual as containing two semiautonomous selves, a far-sighted ‘Planner’ and a myopic ‘Doer.’ (Location 658)